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Delayed and Optimal Cord Clamping

Andersson, O., Hellström-Westas, L., & Domellöf, M. (2016). Elective caesarean: does delay in cord clamping for 30 s ensure sufficient iron stores at 4 months of age? A historical cohort control study. BMJ Open, 6(11), e012995.

Andersson, O., Hellstrom-Westas, L., Andersson, D., & Domellof, M. (2011). Effect of delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping on neonatal outcomes and iron status at 4 months: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 343(nov15 1), d7157-d7157.

KC, A., Rana, N., Målqvist, M., Jarawka Ranneberg, L., Subedi, K., & Andersson, O. (2017). Effects of Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping vs Early Clamping on Anemia in Infants at 8 and 12 Months. JAMA Pediatrics, 171(3), 264.

Backes, C., Huang, H., Iams, J., Bauer, J., & Giannone, P. (2015). Timing of umbilical cord clamping among infants born at 22 through 27 weeks’ gestation. J Perinatol.

Bhargava, S., Chen, X., Howell, H., & Desai, P. (2019). Optimal Timing and Methodology of Umbilical Cord Clamping in Preterm Infants: a Review. Current Pediatrics Reports, 7(3), 90-98.

Bollig, C., Nothacker, M., Lehane, C., Motschall, E., Lang, B., Meerpohl, J., & Schmucker, C. (2017). Prophylactic antibiotics before cord clamping in cesarean delivery: a systematic review. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 97(5), 521-535.

Borlongan, C., Lawton, C., Acosta, S., Watson, N., Gonzales-Portillo, C., & Diamandis, T. et al. (2015). Enhancing endogenous stem cells in the newborn via delayed umbilical cord clamping. Neural Regeneration Research, 10(9), 1359.

Burleigh, A., Tizard, H., & Munro, D. (2015). Optimal Cord Clamping [Ebook] (pp. 23(6): 55). Midwifery Matters. Retrieved 12 April 2018, from

Canterbury District Health Board. (2014). Umbilical Cord Clamping for Term Infants >37 Weeks. Te Poarii Hauora O Waitaha: CDHB.

Ceriani Cernadas, J., Carroli, G., Pellegrini, L., Otaño, L., Ferreira, M., & Ricci, c. et al. (2006). The Effect of Timing of Cord Clamping on Neonatal Venous Hematocrit Values and Clinical Outcome at Term: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. PEDIATRICS, 117(4), e779-e786.

Chaparro, C., Neufeld, L., Alavez, G., Cedillo, R., & Dewey, K. (2006). Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomised controlled trial. Retrieved 21 April 2017, from

Chiruvolu, A., Mallett, L., Govande, V., Raju, V., Hammonds, K., & Katheria, A. (2020). Variations in umbilical cord clamping practices in the United States: a national survey of neonatologists. The Journal Of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 1-7.

Chiruvolu, A., Tolia, V., Qin, H., Stone, G., Rich, D., Conant, R., & Inzer, R. (2015). Effect of delayed cord clamping on very preterm infants. American Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynecology.

Colozzi, A. (1954). Clamping of the Umbilical Cord. New England Journal Of Medicine, 250(15), 629-632.

Devin, J., & Larkin, P. (2018). Delayed Cord Clamping in Term Neonates: Attitudes and Practices of Midwives in Irish Hospitals. International Journal Of Childbirth, 8(1), 4-17.

Effect of Timing of Umbilical Cord Clamping on Iron Status in Mexican Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial. (2006), 26(4), 187-188.

Emerson, K. (2015). Delayed Cord Clamping. Delayed Cord Clamping. Retrieved 11 March 2015, from

Enhamed, M., VanRheenen, P., & Brabin, B. (2004). early effects of delayed cord clamping in term babies born to libyan mothers.

Farrar, D., Airey, R., Law, G., Tuffnell, D., Cattle, B., & Duley, L. (2010). Measuring placental transfusion for term births: weighing babies with cord intact. BJOG: An International Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 118(1), 70-75.

Fogarty, M., Osborn, D., Askie, L., Seidler, A., Hunter, K., & Lui, K. et al. (2018). Delayed vs early umbilical cord clamping for preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynecology, 218(1), 1-18.

Gordon, E. (2003). Polycythemia and Hyperviscosity of the Newborn. The Journal Of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 17(3), 209-221.

Grajeda, R., Pérez-Escamilla, R., & Dewey, K. (1997). Delayed clamping of the umbilical cord improves hematologic status of Guatemalan infants at 2 mo of age. American Journal Of Clinical Nutritian. Retrieved 21 April 2017, from

Gupta, R., & Ramji, S. (2002). Effect of delayed cord clamping on iron stores in infants born to anemic mothers: a randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatrics. Retrieved 21 April 2017, from

Hill, A., & Fontenot, H. (2014). Beliefs and Practices of Obstetric Care Providers Regarding Umbilical Cord Clamping. Nursing For Women's Health, 18(5), 413-419.

Hooper, S., Binder-Heschl, C., Polglase, G., Gill, A., Kluckow, M., & Wallace, E. et al. (2016). The timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth: physiological considerations. Maternal Health, Neonatology And Perinatology, 2(1).

Hooper, S., Polglase, G., & te Pas, A. (2014). A physiological approach to the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth. Archives Of Disease In Childhood - Fetal And Neonatal Edition, 100(4), F355-F360.

Hutchon, D. (2012). Immediate or early cord clamping vs delayed clamping. Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 32(8), 724-729.

Hutchon, D. (2015). Low Apgar, Need for Resuscitation and Neonatal Jaundice. Journal Of Nursing & Care, 04(04).

Hutchon, D. (2015). Ventilation before Umbilical Cord Clamping Improves Physiological Transition at Birth or “Umbilical Cord Clamping before Ventilation is Established Destabilizes Physiological Transition at Birth”. Frontiers In Pediatrics, 3.

Hutton, E., & Hassan, E. (2007). Late vs Early Clamping of the Umbilical Cord in Full-term Neonates. JAMA, 297(11), 1241.

Jahazi, A., Kordi, M., Mirbehbahani, N., & Mazloom, S. (2008). The effect of early and late umbilical cord clamping on neonatal hematocrit. J Perinatol, 28(8), 523-525.

Jaleel, R., Deeba, F., & Kahn, A. (2009). Timing of umbilical cord clamping and neonatal haematological status. Pak Med Association, 59, 468-470.

Jelin, A., Kuppermann, M., Erickson, K., Clyman, R., & Schulkin, J. (2013). Obstetricians’ attitudes and beliefs regarding umbilical cord clamping. Retrieved 3 April 2017, from

Knol, R., Brouwer, E., Vernooij, A., Klumper, F., DeKoninck, P., Hooper, S., & te Pas, A. (2018). Clinical aspects of incorporating cord clamping into stabilisation of preterm infants. Archives Of Disease In Childhood - Fetal And Neonatal Edition, 103(5), F493-F497.

Leslie, M., Greene, J., Schulkin, J., & Jelin, A. (2018). Umbilical cord clamping practices of U.S. obstetricians. Journal Of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, 11(1), 51-60.

Li, H., Trasande, L., Zhu, L., Ye, R., Zhou, Y., & Liu, J. (2014). Association of cesarean delivery with anemia in infants and children in 2 large longitudinal Chinese birth cohorts. American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 101(3), 523-529.

Lozoff, B., & Georgieff, M. (2006). Iron Deficiency and Brain Development. Seminars In Pediatric Neurology, 13(3), 158-165.

Lozoff, B., Beard, J., Connor, J., Felt, B., Georgieff, M., & Schallert, T. (2006). Long-Lasting Neural and Behavioral Effects of Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Nut. Rev., 64(5), 34-43.

Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Infant 35 or More Weeks of Gestation. (2004), 114(1), 297-316.

Marzec, L., Zettler, E., Cua, C., Rivera, B., Pasquali, S., Katheria, A., & Backes, C. (2020). Timing of umbilical cord clamping among infants with congenital heart disease. Progress In Pediatric Cardiology, 59, 101318.

McAdams, R., Backes, C., Fathi, O., & Hutchon, D. (2018). Revert to the original: time to re-establish delayed umbilical cord clamping as the standard approach for preterm neonates. Maternal Health, Neonatology And Perinatology, 4(1).

McDonald, S., Middleton, P., Dowswell, T., & Morris, P. (2014). Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 9(2), 303-397.

Mercer, J. (2001). Current best evidence: a review of the literature on umbilical cord clamping. Journal Of Midwifery & Women's Health, 46(6), 402-414.

Mercer, J. (2006). Delayed Cord Clamping in Very Preterm Infants Reduces the Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Late-Onset Sepsis: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. PEDIATRICS, 117(4), 1235-1242.

Mercer, J., & Erickson-Owens, D. (2012). Rethinking Placental Transfusion and Cord Clamping Issues. The Journal Of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 26(3), 202-217.

Mercer, J., & Skovgaard, R. (2002). Neonatal Transitional Physiology. The Journal Of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 15(4), 56-75.

Mercer, J., Erickson-Owens, D., Collins, J., Barcelos, M., Parker, A., & Padbury, J. (2016). Effects of delayed cord clamping on residual placental blood volume, hemoglobin and bilirubin levels in term infants: a randomized controlled trial. Journal Of Perinatology, 37(3), 260-264.

Mercer, J., Erickson-Owens, D., Deoni, S., Dean, D., Collins, J., & Parker, A. et al. (2018). Effects of Delayed Cord Clamping on 4-Month Ferritin Levels, Brain Myelin Content, and Neurodevelopment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal Of Pediatrics, 203, 266-272.e2.

MERCER, J., SKOVGAARD, R., PEAREARAEAVES, J., & BOWMAN, T. (2005). Nuchal Cord Management and Nurse-Midwifery Practice. Journal Of Midwifery & Women's Health, 50(5), 373-379.

Morley, G. (2005). Review--Birth brain injury: etiology and prevention--Part II: The premature child and cesarean section deliveries. Medical Veritas: The Journal Of Medical Truth, 2, 507-512.

Mwakawanga, D., & Mselle, L. (2020). Early or delayed umbilical cord clamping? Experiences and perceptions of nurse-midwives and obstetricians at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania. PLOS ONE, 15(6), e0234854.

Ninan, K., Liyanage, S., Ali, R., & McDonald, S. (2020). What do clinical practice guidelines suggest for deferred cord clamping for preterm and term infants and how evidence-based are they? A systematic review. Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynaecology Canada, 42(5), 686.

Palethorpe, R., Farrar, D., & Duley, L. (2012). Alternative positions for the baby at birth before clamping the umbilical cord (review). The Cochrane Collaboration, (10).

Pappas, A., & Delaney-Black, V. (2004). Differential diagnosis and management of polycythemia. Pediatric Clinics Of North America, 51(4), 1063-1086.

Qian, Y., Ying, X., Wang, P., Lu, Z., & Hua, Y. (2019). Early versus delayed umbilical cord clamping on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Archives Of Gynecology And Obstetrics, 300(3), 531-543.

Rabe, H., Diaz-Rossello, J., Duley, L., & Dowswell, T. (2012). Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping and other strategies to influence placental transfusion at preterm birth on maternal and infant outcomes. Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews.

Rabe, H., Reynolds, G., & Diaz-Rossello, J. (2008). A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Brief Delay in Clamping the Umbilical Cord of Preterm Infants. Neonatology, 93(2), 138-144.

Rana, N., KC, A., Målqvist, M., Subedi, K., & Andersson, O. (2018). Effect of Delayed Cord Clamping of Term Babies on Neurodevelopment at 12 Months: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Neonatology, 36-42.

Rana, N., Ranneberg, L., Målqvist, M., KC, A., & Andersson, O. (2019). Delayed cord clamping was not associated with an increased risk of hyperbilirubinaemia on the day of birth or jaundice in the first 4 weeks. Acta Paediatrica, 109(1), 71-77.

Rosenkranz, K., Kumbruch, S., Tenbusch, M., Marcus, K., Marschner, K., Dermietzel, R., & Meier, C. (2012). Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells mediated beneficial effects on apoptosis, angiogenesis and neuronal survival after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rats. Cell Tissue Res, 348(3), 429-438.

Sanberg, P., Divers, R., Mehindru, A., Mehindru, A., & Borlongan, C. (2014). Delayed Umbilical Cord Blood Clamping: First Line of Defense Against Neonatal and Age-Related Disorders [Ebook]. NIH Public Access Author Manuscript. Retrieved 3 September 2018, from

Satragno, D., Vain, N., Gordillo, J., Fernandez, A., Carroli, G., Romero, N., & Prudent, L. (2018). 33: Postpartum maternal administration of oxytocin and volume of placental transfusion, an RCT. American Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynecology, 218(1), S26.

Soltani, H., Hutchon, D., & Poulose, T. (2010). Timing of prophylactic uterotonics for the third stage of labour after vaginal birth. Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews.

Sommers, R., Stonestreet, B., Oh, W., Laptook, A., Yanowitz, T., Raker, C., & Mercer, J. (2012). Hemodynamic Effects of Delayed Cord Clamping in Premature Infants. PEDIATRICS, 129(3), e667-e672.

Taha Ibrahim Elgzar, W., Abdel-Fatah Ibrahim, H., & Heiba Elkhateeb, H. (2017). Effects of Deferred Versus Early Umbilical Cord Clamping on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes. American Journal Of Nursing Research, 5(4), 115-128.

Tizard, H. (2018). Too little too late for delayed cord clamping?. All4Maternity. Retrieved 24 February 2021, from

Tolosa, J., Park, D., Eve, D., Klasko, S., Borlongan, C., & Sanberg, P. (2010). Mankind's first natural stem cell transplant. Journal Of Cellular And Molecular Medicine.

Vain, N., Satragno, D., Gorenstein, A., Gordillo, J., Berazategui, J., Alda, M., & Prudent, L. (2015). Effect of Gravity on Volume of Placental Transfusion. Obstetric Anesthesia Digest, 35(3), 156.

Vain, N., Satragno, D., Gorenstein, A., Gordillo, J., Berazategui, J., Alda, M., & Prudent, L. (2014). Effect of gravity on volume of placental transfusion: a multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial. The Lancet, 384(9939), 235-240.

van Rheenen, P. (2011). Delayed cord clamping and improved infant outcomes. BMJ, 343(nov15 1), d7127-d7127.

Van Rheenen, P., & Brabin, B. (2006). Effect of Timing of Cord Clamping on Neonatal Venous Hematocrit Values and Clinical Outcome at Term: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. PEDIATRICS, 118(3), 1317-1318.

Van Rheenen, P., De Moor, L., Eschbach, S., De Grooth, H., & Brabin, B. (2007). Delayed cord clamping and haemoglobin levels in infancy: a randomised controlled trial in term babies. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 12(5), 603-616.

Weeks, A. (2007). Umbilical cord clamping after birth. BMJ, 335(7615), 312-313.

Weeks, A. (2012). Early umbilical cord clamping increases the risk of neonatal anaemia and infant iron deficiency. Evidence-Based Medicine, 17(6), 179-180.

Werner, E., Savitz, D., Janevic, T., Ehsanipoor, R., Thung, S., Funai, E., & Lipkind, H. (2012). Mode of Delivery and Neonatal Outcomes in Preterm, Small-for-Gestational-Age Newborns. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 120(3), 560-564.


Zhao, Y., Hou, R., Zhu, X., Ren, L., & Lu, H. (2019). Effects of delayed cord clamping on infants after neonatal period: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 92, 97-108.

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